1 (a) Conduct the critical analysis of curriculum development models and explains using examples (basing on their differences and similarities)

(b) Study one of the curriculums developed by the Tanzania Institute of Education

(i) Name the curriculum

(ii) Brief describe its components

1. (a)Marope (2015), curriculum development, is a process of improving the curriculum; various approaches have been used in developing curricular. Commonly used approaches consist of analysis (need, test analysis), selecting (selecting appropriate learning/teaching methods and appropriate assessment method), formation and review (curriculum review committee).

IGI global dictionary (1998), curriculum development model, refers to the process of utilizing sets of concept to achieve both quality and quantity education through a guided learning experiences.

There are three (3) types of curriculum development models, this types are linear, cyclic and interactive curriculum modes. Linear curriculum development was developed by Tyler in 1949 and Taba in 1962. In Tyler model the main features was to explain the objectives from the basis for the selection and organisation of learning experiences and evaluation. The objectives are derived from three sources those are learner, society and subject.

Taba’s curriculum development model, it was formed in (1962), the theory advocate an inductive approach to curriculum development starting with specific and building up to general design.

Cyclic curriculum model, this is another types of curriculum development which was explained by a wheeler (1967), Wheeler argue that “evaluation need not be a terminal stage but should take place at every stage”. Wheeler suggest that curriculum development should be in a cyclic form, it has five (5) stage of curriculum development that are aims, goals and objectives, selection of learning experience, selection of content, organisation and integration of learning experience and evaluation (Ololube 2015:267).

Interactive curriculum model, this was another types of curriculum development model, it was developed by Kerr (1968). The model proposed that rational and cyclic model does not reflect the reality of curriculum development in educational organisation curriculum development process does not follow linear or sequential patterns. It lies common with any element and proceed in any other.

The curriculum development models, they are similar in some basis and they are differ in some basis. This models they are similar in the following basis.

Evaluation factor, is among the basis which create the similarity between models of curriculum development starting from Tyler thenTaba under linear system, wheeler under cyclic and Kerr under interactive. Evaluation is all about assessment of failure or successes of the curriculum, such evaluation are conducted through different assessment instrument or evaluation instrument. Forexample P.J George on his book titled “Analyzing the curriculum” mentioned questionnaires and school records which are developed to check the effectiveness of the curriculum.

Objectives, all curriculum models suggest that a curriculum developer should design the objectives and identifying the need that required attention he/she specifies objectives should based on the learners, society and subject. Objective should focus on the education purpose that is changing student behaviour.

Content, all models proposed that a curriculum designer should organize the content so as to achieve school’s purpose. A know ledge should be formulated basing on the nature and needs of particular students. Also these curricular developments they are differ in the following bases:-

Stage, these bases differentiate the curriculum models, whereby Tyler’s model has four stages which are objectives, selection of learning experience, organization of learning experience and evaluation while Taba’s model has seven stages which are diagnosis of content, organization of content, selection of learning experience organization of learning experience and evaluation while Wheeler model has five stages which are aims, selection of learning experience, selection of content, organisation of content and evaluation while Kerr’s model has four stages which are objectives, knowledge school learning experience and evaluation.

Time for establishment, this basis also differentiate the models of curriculum development whereby Tyler model established (1949), Taba model  established in(1962), wheeler model developed in (1967) and Kerr’s model developed (1968).

Reflection of the reality of curriculum development in educational organizations, also become a point of differentiation among models of curriculum development, as the main argument of Kerr’s model of curriculum development come to be against the former founder of another model including Tyler and Taba and wheeler under cyclic model. Example wheeler’s model on his five stages of curriculum developed, he mentioned organisation and integration of learning experience but failed to show the procedures to be followed on such organization and integration of learning experience. But Kerr on his four domains among them knowledge, he explained that under knowledge domain to move on school learning experience.

Objectives, in Kerr’s interactive model seted as the final stage and the first stage while in Tyler’s model, Taba’s model and wheelers model objectives seated as the first stage only.

Evaluation, in Tyler model and Taba model evaluation is the last stage where by in Tyler model they do not have a feedback mechanism to tell people how to correct it and in Taba model evaluation should determine what objectives has been accomplished while in Wheeler’s curriculum model and Kerry interactive model evaluation is not last or terminal stage means that curriculum development it is continuous process and these two model provide feedback to people.

Types, wheeler curriculum mode fall under cyclic types of curriculum development while Taba’s and Tyler’s curriculum models fall under linear types of curriculum development model, and Kerr’s fall under interactive types of curriculum development model.

Generally, curriculum development modes have a great importance in education formulation. For example it show the stages of curriculum development process, they are used to study the development of a curriculum and the relationship between these components, also it organise curriculum activities by giving the framework or the patterns of actions in the different educational foundation on like in schools and universities.

1. (b)Tanner (2007), defines the word curriculum as the set of courses, course work and their content, offered at a school or university. Tanner explained that the origin of the word curriculums is from Latin word “curree” which means to run or more quickly.

One among of the curriculum developed by the Tanzania institute of education is curriculum for ordinary level secondary education in (2007), which include seven elements these element are current context, educational policy statement, statement of broad learning objectives and competences, structure of education system, structure of curriculum content, learning areas and subjects standard resources required for curriculum implementation. The following are the components of this ordinal level secondary education curriculum:-

Objectives, Tanzania institute of education develop this curriculum for ordinary level secondary education for the various aims (purpose towards to the development of ordinary secondary level). These aims are to promote the development of competency in linguistic ability and effective use of communication skills in Kiswahili and in at least one foreign language, to prepare students for tertiary and higher education, vocational, technical and professional training. To prepare students to join the world of work and to provide opportunity for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes and understanding in prescribe or selected fields of study.

Content/subject matter, also this curriculum comprise subject matter or content which require students to study it which organised into key learning areas from which the learning/teaching subjects are generated, example of key learning areas are language, natural science and technology, social science, business and aesthetics whereby by natural science comprise various subject, these are biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, agriculture, home economics, technical education, information and computer studies, language subjects are Kiswahili, English, French and Arabic. Social science subjects are History, Geography and Civics. Business subjects are commerce and Book-keeping. Aesthetics subjects are fine arts, theatre arts, music and physical education from one up to form two students study ten subjects include seven (7) core subjects, two elective subjects and religion as a compulsory form three and form four students were required to take six core subjects and one or more elective subject.

Learning experience, ordinary level secondary education curriculum show that the learning experience or method that is suitable for ordinary secondary education level is learner centre approach which promote learning through doing where both the teachers and students are active participants in the learning and teaching process, in this approach teachers was demanded to became a facilitator, motivator and promoter of learning during the classroom interactions. The teaching and learning methods used by teachers and students suggested by this curriculum for ordinary secondary level are classroom based problem solving, and enquiry, demonstrations, analyzing case studies, group work to co-practice reports and presentation, summarizing reading, conducting research, posing problems, practice of technical laboratory skills, debates and group discussions.

Evaluation/assessment of students achievements, Tanzania institute of education develop curriculum for ordinary level secondary education and include this component for the purpose of assessing students competency and to determine of the objective have been achieved or not, to guide and improve the process of teaching and learning. This component has main components also these are continuous and final examination whereby continuous assessment is in nature whereby students assessed within the year or after every lesson. The assessment tools which shall be used are assignments, test, project and terminal examinations and their scores for continuous assessment is formative of the final assessment of the students and the terminal test scores and project scores shall be sent to Necta. Final examination, this also is one among of assessment whereby in the ordinary level secondary education cycle consist two official examinations conducted on a national scale of form two and form four. Other minor components found in this curriculum are follows:-

Time for teaching and learning, the school calendar for ordinary level secondary education recommended by Tanzania institute of education in 2007 was 194 days of teaching and learning in schools per year which comprise two school terms in a year each with 21 weeks. And they recommended that the week of teaching shall have ammonium of 40 periods and each period have duration of 40 minutes.

Teaching and learning materials, teaching and learning materials are must important resources needed in ordinary level secondary education for facilitate the process of teaching and learning. The teaching and learning materials needed for ordinary level secondary education divided into two types these are textual materials that include printed materials such as text books, syllabus, modules and manuals, references books, charts and maps, newspaper, journals and encyclopedia and others and another types is non-textual materials which recommended to include materials such as laboratory apparatus, prototypes, writing boards, weather station and other.

Generally this curriculum to some extent succeed and to some extent has some weakness, starting with successful or achievement of this curriculum achievements are it enable the student to use or apply knowledge obtained from the school in their daily life after complete form four level, for example most of them they employed in the various companies. The weakness of this curriculum is that some of components were not implemented greatly/effectives whereby component like teaching and learning materials are not enough which hinder teaching and learning process to take place effectively in the classroom.


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George, B. (1985). Curriculum Development, Textbook for student.London: Macmillan.

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Marope P.T.M (2015). Investigation Evidence: The Global State of Early Childhood Core and Education. Paris: UNESCO

Ololube, N.P (2015). Handsbooksof Research on Enhancing Teacher Education with Advanced Instructional Technologies.Abuja: IGI Global publisher.

Tanner, D & Tanner L. (2007). Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice. Forth