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MEANING OF DEFORESTATION




REFERENCES
Blomley, T &Iddi, S. (2009). Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism: United Republic of Tanzania.
Busch, J. (2017). Review of Environmental Economic and Policy Vol. 11,
John, K. (1997).  A Neotropical Companion: An Introduction to the Animals, Plants & Ecosystems of the New World Tropic. Princeton, JN: Princeton UP
Kideghesho, J.R (2015). Realities on Deforestation in Tanzania-Trends, Drivers, Implications and the Way Forward, Precious Forests, MiodragZlatic. Tanzania
Kulindwa, K. &Shechambo, F. (1995).The Impact of Rural Energy Use on the Environment during the Economic Reforms Period (1981-1992), UTAFITI (New Series), 2(1&2).
Roggie, B.R (2017). Assessment of Economic Activities of Deforestation. A Case Study of Bahi District in Dodoma-Tanzania.
URT, (2012).National Strategy for Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.


                                        

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Deforestation, refers the cutting, cleaning and removal of forest all relate ecosystem in less biodiversity, ecosystem, such as pasture, cropland or plantation (Kricher, 1997).

Deforestation is the removal of forest trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve convection of forest land to forms ranches or urban use.

Deforestation in Tanzania is wide spread problem in different regions, the Bahi district in Dodoma is among areas which are most affected by deforestation (URT, 2012) Kahama and Geita district where there is an intensive mining of ruby (NEMC, 2000). Deforestation rate in Tanzania are quite high and wide spread problem between 1900 & 2005, estimated that about 412,000 hectare per annual cleared (Blomly et al, 2009).

1.1 INDICATOR’S OF DEFORESTATION

(i) Soil erosion, this occurring when the area covered by tree is clearly the land become barer and weak so those agents of erosion when applied on land will be easy to be eroded. Also soil erosion can have impact on the environment like loss of soil fertility and decline of production. (Kideghesho 2015)

(ii) Desertification is the process by which the fertile land becomesdescent typically as the result of deforestation. The cutting down trees can lead to the loss of soil nutrient hence land become dry, but also the desertification has an impact to the environment likely loss of biodiversity, water scarcity as well as increase of temperature to the particular area like that Bahi in Dodoma region.(Roggie 2017:40)

(iii) Climatic change is the changing into the statistical distribution of whether pattern for extended period of time. The occurrence of deforestation lead to the climatic change in the sense that when the trees are failing down lead to the change into the atmospheric circulation like temperature, so climatic change has the direct impact on the environment like, increase of temperature (Global warming), changing of hydrological circle as well as the decline of crop production due to the high temperature or low rainfall.

2.0 CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION

The deforestation is cause by the number of factor that can be social, economic or cultural factors.

  1. Mining activities, mining is causing deforestation by felling trees and land stripping in preparation for mining. This is evident in small scale gold mining area in Kahama, Geita and Morogoro region where there is intensive mining of ruby (NEMC, 2000).
  2. The increase demand in fuel wood, the increase demand fuel and scarcity of alternative sources of energy is also major factor. Urban growth has created a great demand for charcoal that resulting in a loss of some 575000ha, annual through fuel wood extraction (Kulindwa and Shechambo, 1995). Example the total supplying that is required in Dar es Salaam is the rate of 75000ha per annual (Hagman, 1984).
  3. Population increase, also the increase in population affect to the environment especially cutting down tree for different purpose like use of charcoal and establishment of agriculture. Example according to the national censer that calculated in 2012 the number of population size approximately to be 45million.

3.0 (i) The people’s attitudes toward the deforestation is the negative attitude simply because the highly number of the people into the societies were no environment education that could help them on the conserving environment.

(ii) The deforestation is influenced by  the numbers of factors that are:-

  1. Culture, culture influenced deforestation through the historical background example the historical background of Masai is to engaging into pastoralism and those Masai who coming up to date involve in pastoralism that they keep on moving find posture and to establish settlement due to this can lead to the destruction of environment through their activities.
  2. Education, lack of education about environment education is the one of the method that can lead to the influence of deforestation because people are not aware about the environment conservation and the effect of districting environment. So due to that education problem has an influence to the deforestation especially in the rural area were education is very difficult to obtained easily.
  3. Poverty, poverty influence deforestation in the way that most of people use charcoal and depend much on the agriculture all these activities involve the cutting tree and cleared the forest example Sukuma people live in rural areas depend much on extension of their farms and use of charcoal as the source of fuel this can lead to the deforestation into their places.

4.0 THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION TOWARDS ADDRESSING DEFORESTATION

(i) Raising of awareness, about how to conserve the environment for their future utilize the resources in better way.

(ii) Participating, people should involve into the different groups and learn on how to conserve the environment and also participate in the using their resources.

(iii) Influence the motivation (between intrinsic and extrinsic motivates whereby for those people who are able to conserve the environment and maintain power use and utilize the resource the NEMC provide some certificate and reward as the way to encourage and motivated them in one way or another (NEMC 1960’s).

(Roggie2017:43) The challenge of deforestation can be addressed through the methods which are:- (i) Project method (ii) Discussion method and (iii) Demonstration methods.

5.0 The key actors to be targeted intervention through environmental education are as follows there is young people and older people because all the group of people are more destructors to environment due to agricultural activities and timber production, so environmental education should be provided to inorder to conserve environment (Busch 2017:3-23).

6.0 According to (Roggie 2017:53-56)The following are the methods or ways that should be used in addressing the challenge, those are the following:-

(i) The community should addressed to use alternative source of energy, which can replacing the intensive demand or use of forest resources the main source of energy that alternative source of energy are like, wind energy, natural gas, hydroelectric power, solar energy and those alternative source of energy should be reduced cost, so as to be affordable by every member of community or society.

(ii) The people should be addressed to practice afforestation and reforestation, where the place damaged or destroyed should be replanting trees and to plant trees where the place previously are not covered by trees. Environmental educational should be provided to the community to use forest resources for sustainability.

(iii) Environmental education should be provided to the community on the value of forest resources and the impact which can be occurred if they use it the community should be addressed to use forest resources for sustainability.

7.0 The following are the technology and skills to address the challenge of deforestation:-

  1. The use of low power consumption technology example the use solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric power like Stigler’s Gorge power station.
  2. Afforestation and Reforestation skills example government can provide education to the people and motivating them by providing certificate to the people who are engaging in plant trees through national environmental management council (NEMC).
Generally, education environment should be provided to the people on how to conceive the environment inorder to avoid some effect of environmental problem. Example managing the good use of natural resource likessustainable use of forest resource

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